Prognosis refers to how well a patient is expected to respond to treatment based on their individual characteristics at time of diagnosis. In JMML, these characteristic areas have been identified as significant in the prognosis of patients:
|| Values indicating a more favorable prognosis
| Age at diagnosis
|| < 2 years old
| Platelet count at diagnosis
|| > 33 K/mm3
| Other existing conditions
|| Diagnosis of Noonan's Syndrome
| Genetic lesion
|| Specific RAS or CBL mutations
Without treatment, the long-term survival of children with JMML is approximately 5–10%.
Only Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT), commonly referred to as a bone marrow or (umbilical) cord blood transplant, has been shown to be successful in curing a child of JMML; with HSCT, recent research studies have found the rate of survival in remission at 5 years after transplant to be 50–55% (Locatelli et al. 2005 Blood Vol. 105: pp. 410-9).
Relapse is a significant risk after HSCT for children with JMML; it is the greatest cause of death in JMML children who have had stem cell transplants. Relapse rate has been recorded at ~30%. Many children have been brought into remission after a second stem cell transplant, so this should always be considered seriously as a treatment possibility after relapse.
The information on this page was last reviewed in January 2013 by Dr. Christian Flotho, Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.